Figure 1
Illustration: Alan Stonebraker; images of neutron star system and Earth: NASA.

Figure 1: The white lines illustrate the constraints from cosmic rays on the dangerous particles that stop in the earth or the sun, giving the number of proton-nucleon collisions at energies above the given center-of-mass energy already experienced by a single star or planet in one billion years of exposure to cosmic rays, compared to the number of events expected at the LHC in one year at the design luminosity. The red lines illustrate my estimates of the placement on this plot of the new constraints of Giddings and Mangano, specifically applicable to “slippery” black holes, defined in the text. These estimates account approximately for the sizes of the objects and also for astrophysical effects that limit or enhance the production and destructiveness of black holes. The full analyses are subtle; for the precise results and qualifications, see the original paper [4].