“Fuji seen from the sea,” colored woodblock print by Hokusai, from “One Hundred Views of Mt. Fuji,” Vol. 2 (1834)
Rogue or freak waves are isolated structures with unusually high amplitude, such as the ocean wave shown in this woodcut by Katsushika Hokusai (1760–1849). They can occur due to nonlinear interactions of waves, producing stable waves called solitons. Akhmediev et al. study the initial conditions for oscillating solitons called “breathers” to collide and form rogue waves.