Illustration: Alan Stonebraker

Figure 1: Experimental configuration showing an electron bunch entering the undulator of the FLASH free electron laser. The oscillating bunch generates a coherent $30fs$ x-ray pulse by self-amplified spontaneous emission, which is then directed onto the cobalt/platinum layer magnetic sample. The wavelength of the pulse is set equal to the cobalt $M$ edge to provide a magnetic diffraction pattern (inset). Gutt et al. are able to obtain a diffraction pattern with a single pulse without damaging the sample. (Adapted from Gutt et al. [5].)