Adapted from A. Mocsy, Eur. Phys. J. C 61, 705 (2009)
Thermometry with Upsilon mesons. The Upsilon (Υ) meson (a bound state of a bottom quark and an antibottom quark) and its excited states emerge from the heavy-ion collisions that produce the quark-gluon plasma. However, the free quarks and gluons in the plasma weaken the binding force of the mesons: The more highly excited Upsilon states (Υ(2S) and Υ(3S)) are progressively less tightly bound and have a larger effective radius (<r>) than the Υ ground state (Υ(1S)) and are therefore more highly suppressed by the hot plasma. The relative suppressions of the different states can, in principle, be used to measure the plasma’s temperature.