R. Montoya/Sandia National Laboratory

Figure 1: The Z Accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories, which is $34m$ in diameter and $7m$ high. A capacitor bank, just inside the outer diameter, can be charged to $22$ megajoules to generate a current pulse with a peak of $∼25$ mega-amps and a rise time of $∼100$ to $500ns$. Important thicknesses of the aluminum and quartz drive plates and water samples (see supplemental information in Ref. [3]) were a few $100$ microns; the rear quartz window was a few mm thick. The sparking in the figure is caused by some power leakage from fast switches.