(a),(c) Adapted from J. Struck et al.
]; (b) Adapted from K. Jiménez-García et al.
(a) Force applied to the optical lattice against time through frequency modulation of a lattice laser beam in Struck et al. . By appropriately choosing times and the induced Peierls phase is adjusted. (b) The effective magnetic field indicated by the red arrow subtends the solid angle , shown as light red shading, when an atom hops from site to site in the setup of Jiménez-García et al. . The phase is imprinted on the atomic wave function in this process. (c) Measured quasimomenta when adiabatically changing as a function of time. The symbol indicates the edge of the first Brillouin zone.