Figure 2
Credit: Alan Stonebraker

Figure 2: A schematic of the proposed valley filter. An incoming electron (with angle of incidence α) approaching a line defect in graphene having components in both valleys K and K transmits the defect, for instance, preferentially in valley K for a large angle of incidence, whereas the component in K will be reflected in a specular way. This effect could be used to produce a valley-polarized current out of an unpolarized stream of electrons.