Phys. Rev. Focus21, 11 (2008) – Published April 2, 2008
In the 1970s and 80s, researchers developed techniques for cooling atoms to very low temperatures using laser light. The work led to improvements in atomic clocks and the observation of a new ultracold state of matter.
Phys. Rev. Focus21, 9 (2008) – Published March 11, 2008
Researchers demonstrated an atom slowing and trapping scheme that may apply to elements that have been difficult or impossible to cool before. The atoms need only an unpaired electron, not a special set of internal states.
Phys. Rev. Focus18, 20 (2006) – Published December 29, 2006
Researchers cooled large dye molecules to one-tenth of a degree Kelvin–the coldest temperature ever for large molecules. The technique could work with protein molecules and allow a new level of precision spectroscopy.