Phys. Rev. Focus28, 2 (2011) – Published July 8, 2011
Creating a temperature difference in an arrangement of semiconductors generates a circulating current and a magnetic field, according to simulations. The effect may account for some inefficiency in electronic devices.
The fractional quantum Hall effect, thought to be special to two dimensions, may also flourish in three, providing a possible explanation for anomalies observed in certain 3D materials in high magnetic fields.