Synopsis: Viscous pull

Scaling laws are a useful way to characterize fluid flow over a wide range of flow rates and experimental conditions. Theorists now explain several earlier experiments by finding a scaling law that describes how a liquid-liquid interface changes shape when driven by viscous forces.
Synopsis figure

Shape transitions are ubiquitous in fluids. Consider for example what happens when a pipe is suspended just above the interface between two liquids. As the pipe begins to suction liquid from the top layer, the liquid flow will pull the interface between the two fluids upwards. As the flow rate through the pipe increases, this interface undergoes a shape transition from a gentle hump to a sharp neck at the point when the pipe starts to draw fluid from the lower liquid.

This type of necking effect can occur, for example, in microfluidic devices where fluids are channeled down extremely narrow passages or in the encapsulation of biological cells. But, researchers have not been able to capture the experimental details of the process with a simple scaling law that holds for different types of liquids and length scales. In a paper appearing in Physical Review Letters, François Blanchette and Wendy Zhang at the University of Chicago in the US treat this problem analytically and resolve the discrepancy between different experiments.

Blanchette and Zhang argue that the part that makes this problem hard to solve—the discontinuous neck that forms at the transition—is in fact, not important. Instead, they show that it is the gentle deflection of the interface far away from the opening of the tube that matters. With this simplifying assumption, they find a simple scaling relation between the critical flow rate at which the shape transition occurs and the height of the pipe above the interface and outline the experimental regimes where this law applies. – Jessica Thomas


Announcements

More Announcements »

Subject Areas

Fluid DynamicsSoft Matter

Previous Synopsis

Semiconductor Physics

Dirt and geometry insulate electrons

Read More »

Next Synopsis

Nuclear Physics

Nuclear star gazing

Read More »

Related Articles

Viewpoint: Superfluids Hit the Street
Atomic and Molecular Physics

Viewpoint: Superfluids Hit the Street

A flow pattern dubbed the von Kármán vortex street, which is renowned for its aesthetic beauty and extreme power, has been created in a superfluid. Read More »

Synopsis: Wetting Matters When Emptying a Tank
Fluid Dynamics

Synopsis: Wetting Matters When Emptying a Tank

The speed at which water drains out of a tank depends on the affinity of water with the outside surface of the orifice through which it drains.   Read More »

Viewpoint: Signs of a Gardner Transition in a Granular Glass
Soft Matter

Viewpoint: Signs of a Gardner Transition in a Granular Glass

Two-dimensional disk packings under compression and vibration display signatures of the Gardner phase transition that is thought to occur between the glass and jamming transitions. Read More »

More Articles