Synopsis: Tweezers Work Well Under Pressure

The use of optical tweezers in a high-pressure experiment allows a more direct measurement of water viscosity in extreme conditions.
Synopsis figure
Courtesy R. Bowman/University of Glasgow

Diamond anvil cells can apply millions of atmospheres of pressure to a solid or liquid, while allowing it to be observed through the diamond “windows.” For the first time, researchers have introduced optical tweezers into one of these cells in order to trap sample particles. The experiment, described in Physical Review Letters, directly measured the viscosity of the water surrounding the particles. Further development of this technique could permit investigations of the mechanical changes in biological cells and other soft materials placed under high pressure.

A diamond anvil cell (DAC) is a sealed volume sandwiched between the flat, millimeter-wide tips of two diamonds. When squeezed, the pressure in the cell can reach levels found in the core of the Earth. Diamonds are not only strong enough to handle these pressures, but they are also transparent to optical and x-ray probes. However, studying certain mechanical properties requires the controlled application of localized forces, which has been difficult to realize in a DAC.

For their force “handle,” Richard Bowman of the University of Glasgow, in the UK, and his colleagues chose optical tweezers, which are highly focused lasers that trap particles. To overcome the spatial constraints of a DAC, the team used part of their laser to create a second beam that reflected back on the cell. The combined beams trapped micron-sized silica beads suspended in a water sample. Because the optical forces were known, the random vibrations of trapped beads provided a direct measure of the water viscosity. The team recorded a threefold increase in viscosity for a pressure rise of 10,000 atmospheres—a result that agrees well with previous measurements and builds confidence in the new technique. – Michael Schirber


Announcements

More Announcements »

Subject Areas

OpticsFluid DynamicsSoft Matter

Previous Synopsis

Nonlinear Dynamics

Star-Shaped Waves

Read More »

Next Synopsis

Related Articles

Viewpoint: Particles Move to the Beat of a Microfluidic Drum
Fluid Dynamics

Viewpoint: Particles Move to the Beat of a Microfluidic Drum

A thin vibrating plate can organize microscopic particles within a liquid into different patterns, an effect like that observed in 18th century studies of musical instruments. Read More »

Focus: Superfluid Increases Force of Laser Light
Fluid Dynamics

Focus: Superfluid Increases Force of Laser Light

Shining a laser onto a microscopic object coated with a superfluid film induces flows that can generate a controlled force. Read More »

Synopsis: Light Tuner Slows Down to Shift
Optics

Synopsis: Light Tuner Slows Down to Shift

A new design for an optical frequency shifter combines a tunable filter and slow-light techniques. Read More »

More Articles