Bead Chains Impersonate Polymer Molecules

Physics 11, 20
Chains of metallic beads act a lot like polymer molecules, even though real polymers are in constant motion.
D. Dumont et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. (2018)
Tangled like polymers. The rigidity of a pile made of chains of metallic beads depends on the lengths of the chains involved. Each collection was initially held in a cylindrical container, and then the container was removed. The numbers of beads per chain are (clockwise from top left) 3, 5, 10, and 30. The longer the chain length, the better the pile stands up to gravity. This behavior results from the multiple contacts between chains and is reminiscent of polymer properties.

Granular materials such as sand often behave like a collection of molecules, flowing like liquids in some conditions or locking together in solid structures in others. Now researchers experimenting with chains of metallic beads have shown a surprising link to the physics of polymers—long, chain-like molecules that form plastic and rubber materials. Both show a marked tendency to grow stiffer in response to any deforming force. The finding could help in the engineering of stronger materials.

Push the tip of a pencil into a chunk of rubber, and the material’s resistance increases as the probe goes deeper. Researchers understand that this stiffness amplification arises because the polymers in the material are linked together. The material acts as a coherent whole, and the probe can only penetrate further by breaking contacts at many points where polymers link together.

A similar linking together of separate strands occurs in the coiled rope or cable used to lift an anchor on a ship, says Pascal Damman of the University of Mons in Belgium. The more you increase tension in the rope—which is typically wrapped around a drum known as a capstan—the more the strands bind together, making them further resistant to movement. Damman and his colleagues wondered if this behavior, called self-amplified friction, might be observed for any collection of chain-like objects. They sought to test the idea in experiments using chains of metallic beads like those found in key chains or connected to sink stoppers.

They placed a collection of such chains into a cylindrical container and subjected it to vibration to allow the chains to pack themselves efficiently. They then measured the force needed to push a vertical, rod-shaped probe slowly down into the pile, recording how the force changed as the probe went deeper. The force required to deform this material is strongly influenced by the same interstrand-binding effects that cause self-amplified friction. Experimenting with chain lengths ranging from 2 to 50 beads, the team found a universal behavior in which the force always increases exponentially with the depth of the tip. They also found that the exponent describing this stiffening grows in proportion to the square root of the chain length.

This behavior, the researchers discovered, can be explained quite accurately using a mathematical model taken directly from polymer physics. This model accounts for the increase in the number of likely contacts between different chains as the chain density and length increase. The data from the experiments closely follow the pattern predicted by the model.

This agreement is somewhat surprising, the team says in their paper, given the huge differences between the behaviors of macroscopic and microscopic chains. Strongly influenced by molecular jiggling linked to temperature, polymers naturally relax to a state of thermal equilibrium, in which their shapes fluctuate over time. In contrast, temperature plays no role at all for the metallic chains, which stay locked in place, far from equilibrium.

“The agreement is remarkable,” says materials physicist Pedro Reis of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL). “The theoretical framework for polymer physics was developed for microscopic thermal systems in equilibrium.”

The results, Damman suggests, add support to a conjecture first made in 1989 by the late statistical physicist Sam Edwards, of the University of Cambridge, who believed that many properties of granular systems should be similar to those of molecular systems, even though temperature is not relevant for the granular ones. Damman says that researchers continue to debate this idea and test its validity.

The work may also have practical uses in adjusting the physical properties of common materials, Damman suggests. Self-amplified friction, he says, “appears as a kind of universal mechanism that can be used to improve stiffness in real systems.”For example, manufacturers often need to handle granular materials, such as sand, cement, flour, or pharmaceutical powders. Piles of these materials typically collapse under their own weight, but it might be possible to make them easier to control by adding in some chain-like structures, lending stiffness to the material.

This research is published in Physical Review Letters.

–Mark Buchanan

Mark Buchanan is a freelance science writer who splits his time between Abergavenny, UK, and Notre Dame de Courson, France.

Subject Areas

Soft Matter

Related Articles

Witnessing the Birth of Skyrmions
Condensed Matter Physics

Witnessing the Birth of Skyrmions

Using thin layers of chiral nematic liquid crystals, researchers have observed the formation dynamics of skyrmions. Read More »

Prizes for Videos Featuring Mickey Mouse and Laptop Cables
Fluid Dynamics

Prizes for Videos Featuring Mickey Mouse and Laptop Cables

The winners of the third annual “Gallery of Soft Matter” competition included posters portraying robotic leaves and cannibalizing droplets and a video with what might be Steamboat Willie’s first appearance at the APS March Meeting. Read More »

Smooth Control of Active Matter
Soft Matter

Smooth Control of Active Matter

A theoretical study finds that the most energy-efficient way to control an active-matter system is to drive it at finite speed—unlike passive-matter systems. Read More »

More Articles