Synopsis: Radiation-Belt Scattering in the Lab

Experiments in a laboratory recreate an interaction between electrons and plasma waves that may be responsible for large electron-flux variability in the Earth’s radiation belts.
Synopsis figure
NASA

The flux of electrons in Earth’s radiation belts can sometimes vary by a factor of 100,000 in a matter of hours. Space scientists assume that these rapid changes are partly due to the scattering of electrons from so-called whistler-mode waves—plasma waves in the Earth’s magnetosphere with frequencies in the kilohertz range. A first experimental observation of this scattering process, recreated in the lab, is presented in Physical Review Letters.

The Van Allen radiation belts are two donut-shaped regions, in which charged particles spiral along the Earth’s magnetic field lines. The outer belt can vary dramatically, especially during geomagnetic storms. One possible factor contributing to this variation is the resonant interaction of electrons with whistler modes whose frequency matches the electrons’ gyrofrequency. However, verifying this hypothesis has been difficult because the change in the electron trajectory is very small in a laboratory experiment.

Bart Van Compernolle and his colleagues at UCLA have managed to observe electron scattering from whistler waves for the first time. Inside the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA, they generated a beam of 5-kilo-electron-volt electrons, which spiraled along the machine’s magnetic field lines before reaching a detector with a small pin-hole entrance. This hole filtered the incoming electrons depending on the pitch angle of their helical trajectory. The team then induced whistler waves in the LAPD plasma with a radio antenna and observed a drop in the number of electrons making it to the detector. The drop was consistent with the expected change in pitch angle from scattering off of whistler waves. The authors expect this verification should help interpret data coming from satellites, such as the recently launched Van Allen Probes that are studying the Earth’s radiation environment. – Michael Schirber


Features

More Features »

Announcements

More Announcements »

Subject Areas

AstrophysicsPlasma Physics

Previous Synopsis

Atomic and Molecular Physics

High-Precision Terahertz Spectroscopy

Read More »

Next Synopsis

Complex Systems

Bird Flocks Shatter on Impact

Read More »

Related Articles

Synopsis: Turning up the Ringdown
Astrophysics

Synopsis: Turning up the Ringdown

Stacking up gravitational-wave “ringdown” signals from a set of black hole mergers increases the sensitivity of the signals to black hole properties. Read More »

Synopsis: Neutrons On-Demand from Laser Fusion
Nuclear Physics

Synopsis: Neutrons On-Demand from Laser Fusion

A new laser-driven fusion method could lead to a robust and efficient way to generate neutrons for use in materials science, geology, and other fields. Read More »

Viewpoint: Electron Pulses Made Faster Than Atomic Motions
Atomic and Molecular Physics

Viewpoint: Electron Pulses Made Faster Than Atomic Motions

Electron pulses have shattered the 10-femtosecond barrier at which essentially all atomic motion is frozen in materials. Read More »

More Articles